Das Passspiel, englisch auch Passing Play, ist eine Möglichkeit zum Raumgewinn im Hochspringen ↑ David Nelson: The Anatomy of a Game: Football, the Rules, and the Men Who Made the Game. University of Delaware Press, KICKER (K). Schießt Fieldgoals und PAT und führt die Kick-Off s durch. PUNTER (P). Führt die Befreiungskicks aus. THAT'S AMERICAN FOOTBALL. PLAYERS. DEFENSIVE BACK (DB). Die Cornerbacks (CB) und Safeties (S) stehen den WR gegenüber und versuchen den Ball abzufangen oder den. WR zu stoppen.
American Football Rules VideoLearn American Football in 5 Minutes
Other rule changes introduced that year included the reduction of the time of play from 70 to 60 minutes and the increase of the distance required for a first down from 5 to 10 yards 9.
To reduce infighting and dirty play between teams, the neutral zone was created along the width of the football.
This is the first recorded instance of a player being paid to participate in a game of American football , although many athletic clubs in the s offered indirect benefits, such as helping players attain employment, giving out trophies or watches that players could pawn for money, or paying double in expense money.
Despite these extra benefits, the game had a strict sense of amateurism at the time, and direct payment to players was frowned upon, if not outright prohibited.
Over time, professional play became increasingly common, and with it came rising salaries and unpredictable player movement, as well as the illegal payment of college players who were still in school.
The National Football League NFL , a group of professional teams that was originally established in as the American Professional Football Association, aimed to solve these problems.
This new league's stated goals included an end to bidding wars over players, prevention of the use of college players, and abolition of the practice of paying players to leave another team.
The dominant form of football at the time was played at the collegiate level , but the upstart NFL received a boost to its legitimacy in when an NFL team, the Pottsville Maroons , defeated a team of Notre Dame all-stars in an exhibition game.
The game, a 23—17 overtime victory by the Colts, was seen by millions of television viewers and had a major impact on the popularity of the sport.
This, along with the innovations introduced by the new American Football League AFL in the early s, helped football to become the most popular sport in the United States by the mids.
The bidding war for players ended in , when NFL owners approached the AFL regarding a merger, and the two leagues agreed on one that would take full effect in This agreement provided for a common draft that would take place each year, and it instituted an annual World Championship game to be played between the champions of each league.
That game began play at the end of the season. Once the merger was completed, it was no longer a championship game between two leagues, and reverted to the NFL championship game, which came to be known as the Super Bowl.
College football maintained a tradition of postseason bowl games. Each bowl game would be associated with a particular conference, and earning a spot in a bowl game was the reward for winning a conference.
This arrangement was profitable, but it tended to prevent the two top-ranked teams from meeting in a true national championship game, as they would normally be committed to the bowl games of their respective conferences.
Several systems have been used since to determine a national champion of college football. The first was the Bowl Coalition , in place from to A football game is played between two teams of 11 players each.
Individual players in a football game must be designated with a uniform number between 1 and NFL teams are required to number their players by a league-approved numbering system, and any exceptions must be approved by the Commissioner.
The role of the offensive unit is to advance the football down the field with the ultimate goal of scoring a touchdown. The offensive team must line up in a legal formation before they can snap the ball.
An offensive formation is considered illegal if there are more than four players in the backfield or fewer than five players numbered 50—79 on the offensive line.
Interior offensive linemen are not allowed to move until the snap of the ball. The quarterback is the leader of the offense.
Either the quarterback or a coach calls the plays. Quarterbacks typically inform the rest of the offense of the play in the huddle before the team lines up.
The quarterback lines up behind the center to take the snap and then hands the ball off, throws it or runs with it. The primary role of the halfback, also known as the running back or tailback, is to carry the ball on running plays.
Halfbacks may also serve as receivers. Fullbacks tend to be larger than halfbacks and function primarily as blockers, but they are sometimes used as runners in short-yardage situations  and are seldom used in passing situations.
The offensive line OL consists of several players whose primary function is to block members of the defensive line from tackling the ball carrier on running plays or sacking the quarterback on passing plays.
The principal receivers are the wide receivers WR and the tight ends TE. The main goal of the wide receiver is to catch passes thrown by the quarterback,  but they may also function as decoys or as blockers during running plays.
Tight ends line up outside the tackles and function both as receivers and as blockers. The role of the defense is to prevent the offense from scoring by tackling the ball carrier or by forcing turnovers interceptions or fumbles.
Defensive ends line up on the ends of the line, while defensive tackles line up inside, between the defensive ends. The primary responsibilities of defensive ends and defensive tackles is to stop running plays on the outside and inside, respectively, to pressure the quarterback on passing plays, and to occupy the line so that the linebackers can break through.
Linebackers line up behind the defensive line but in front of the defensive backfield. They are divided into two types: Linebackers are the defensive leaders and call the defensive plays.
Their diverse roles include defending the run, pressuring the quarterback, and guarding backs, wide receivers and tight ends in the passing game.
The defensive backfield , often called the secondary, consists of cornerbacks CB and safeties S. Safeties are themselves divided into free safeties FS and strong safeties SS.
Safeties are the last line of defense, and are responsible for stopping deep passing plays as well as running plays. The special teams unit is responsible for all kicking plays.
The special teams unit of the team in control of the ball will try and execute field goal FG attempts, punts and kickoffs , while the opposing team's unit will aim to block or return them.
Three positions are specific to the field goal and PAT point-after-touchdown unit: The long snapper's job is to snap the football to the holder, who will catch and position it for the placekicker.
There is not usually a holder on kickoffs, because the ball is kicked off of a tee; however, a holder may be used in certain situations, such as if wind is preventing the ball from remaining upright on the tee.
The player on the receiving team who catches the ball is known as the kickoff returner KR. The positions specific to punt plays are the punter P , long snapper, upback and gunner.
The long snapper snaps the football directly to the punter, who then drops and kicks it before it hits the ground. Gunners line up split outside the line and race down the field, aiming to tackle the punt returner PR — the player that catches the punt.
Upbacks line up a short distance behind the line of scrimmage, providing additional protection to the punter. In American football, the winner is the team that has scored the most points at the end of the game.
There are multiple ways to score in a football game. The touchdown TD , worth six points, is the most valuable scoring play in American football.
A touchdown is scored when a live ball is advanced into, caught in, or recovered in the end zone of the opposing team.
A PAT is most commonly attempted from the two- or three-yard line, depending on the level of play. If scored by a placekick or dropkick through the goal posts, it is worth one point, and is typically called the extra point.
In such a case, a successful attempt is called the two-point conversion  and is worth two points. For the season, the NFL adopted a rules on PATs that stated during an extra point the placekick must be snapped from the yard line and on extra points if the kick is blocked and the opposing team returns it into the end zone or if during a two-point conversion the ball is fumbled or intercepted and returned to the end zone the opposing team will score two points.
No points are awarded on a failed extra point or two-point conversion attempt, although under a rare set of circumstances it is possible to score a safety, worth one point, if the defense takes the ball back into its own end zone and is downed there.
A field goal FG , worth three points, is scored when the ball is placekicked or dropkicked through the uprights and over the crossbars of the defense's goalposts.
A safety is scored when the ball carrier is tackled in their own end zone. Safeties are worth two points, which are awarded to the defense.
Lines marked along the ends and sides of the field are known respectively as the end lines and sidelines , and goal lines are marked 10 yards 9.
Weighted pylons are placed on the inside corner of the intersections of the goal lines and end lines.
White markings on the field identify the distance from the end zone. Inbound lines, or hash marks , are short parallel lines that mark off 1 yard 0.
Yard lines , which can run the width of the field, are marked every 5 yards 4. A one-yard-wide line is placed at each end of the field; this line is marked at the center of the two-yard line in professional play and at the three-yard line in college play.
Numerals that display the distance from the closest goal line in yards are placed on both sides of the field every ten yards. Goalposts are located at the center of the plane of each of the two end lines.
The crossbar of these posts is ten feet 3. Goal posts are padded at the base, and orange ribbons are normally placed at the tip of each upright.
The football itself is an oval ball, similar to the balls used in rugby or Australian rules football. Football games last for a total of 60 minutes in professional and college play and are divided into two-halves of 30 minutes and four-quarters of 15 minutes.
The visiting team is allowed to call 'heads' or 'tails'; the winner of the toss is allowed to decide between choosing whether to receive or kick off the ball or choosing which goal they want to defend, but they can also defer their choice until the second half.
The losing team, unless the winning team decides to defer, is allowed to choose the option the winning team did not select, and receives the option to receive, kick, or select a goal to defend to begin the second half.
Most teams choose to receive or defer, because choosing to kick the ball to start the game would allow the other team to choose which goal to defend.
Games last longer than their defined length due to play stoppages — the average NFL game lasts slightly over three hours.
An operator is responsible for starting, stopping and operating the game clock based on the direction of the appropriate official. If the play clock expires before the ball has been snapped or free-kicked, a delay of game foul is called on the offense.
The play clock is set to 40 seconds in professional and college football and to 25 seconds in high school play or following certain administrative stoppages in the former levels of play.
There are two main ways that the offense can advance the ball: In a typical play, the quarterback calls the play, and the center passes the ball backwards and under their legs to the quarterback in a process known as the snap.
The quarterback then either hands the ball off to a back, throws the ball or runs with it. The play ends when the player with the ball is tackled or goes out of bounds, or a pass hits the ground without a player having caught it.
A forward pass can only be legally attempted if the passer is behind the line of scrimmage. The offense is given a series of four plays, known as downs.
If the offense advances ten or more yards in the four downs, they are awarded a new set of four downs. If they fail to advance ten yards, possession of the football is turned over to the defense.
In most situations, if the offense reaches their fourth down they will punt the ball to the other team, which forces them to begin their drive from further down the field; if they are in field goal range , they might also attempt to score a field goal.
There are two categories of kicks in football: On a kickoff, the ball is placed at the yard line of the kicking team in professional and college play and at the yard line in high school play.
The ball may be drop-kicked or place-kicked. If a place kick is chosen, the ball can be placed on the ground or on a tee, and a holder may be used in either case.
On a safety kick, the kicking team kicks the ball from their own yard line. They can punt, drop-kick or place-kick the ball, but a tee may not be used in professional play.
Any member of the receiving team may catch or advance the ball, and the ball may be recovered by the kicking team once it has gone at least ten yards and has touched the ground or has been touched by any member of the receiving team.
The three types of scrimmage kicks are place kicks, drop kicks, and punts. Only place kicks and drop kicks can score points.
If it is touched or recovered by the kicking team beyond this line, it becomes dead at the spot where it was touched. This prohibits the defense from blocking into or tackling the receiver, but the play ends as soon as the ball is caught and the ball may not be advanced.
Officials are responsible for enforcing game rules and monitoring the clock. All officials carry a whistle and wear black-and-white striped shirts and black hats except for the referee, whose hat is white.
Each carries a weighted yellow flag that is thrown to the ground to signal that a foul has been called. An official who spots multiple fouls will throw their hat as a secondary signal.
Another set of officials, the chain crew , are responsible for moving the chains. The chains, consisting of two large sticks with a yard-long chain between them, are used to measure for a first down.
The chain crew stays on the sidelines during the game, but if requested by the officials they will briefly bring the chains on to the field to measure.
The defense may also score points by tackling the ball carrier in the offense's own end zone, called a safety which is worth two points.
Collegiate and professional football games are 60 minutes long, divided into four quarters of 15 minutes each.
In high school football, 12 minute quarters are usually played. The clock is stopped frequently, however, with the result that a typical college or professional game can exceed three hours in duration.
The referee controls the game clock and stops the clock after any incomplete pass or any play that ends out of bounds. In addition, each team is allowed 3 timeouts in each half that they may use at their own discretion.
The clock normally runs during the action of plays, with a few exceptions known as untimed plays. The clock may also be stopped for an officials' time-out, after which, if the clock was running, it is restarted.
While this measurement is taking place, the officials will signal for a stoppage of the clock. Once the measurement is finished and the ball is placed at the proper location spotted , the referee will then signal for the clock to restart.
Additional situations where officials may take a time-out are to administer a penalty or for an injured player to be removed from the field.
In addition to the game clock, a separate play clock is also used. This counts down the time the offense has to start the next play before it is assessed a penalty for delay of game see below.
This clock is typically 25 seconds from when the referee marks the ball ready for play. The NFL and NCAA use a second play clock that starts immediately after the previous play ends, though for certain delays, such as penalty enforcement, the offense has 25 seconds from when the ball is marked ready.
The purpose of the play clock is to ensure that the game progresses at a consistent pace, preventing unnecessary delays. Overall, clock management is a significant part of the game; teams leading toward the end of the game will often try to run out the clock , while trailing teams attempt the opposite.
Officials also call for media time-outs, which allow time for television and radio advertising. They also stop the clock after a change of possession of the ball from one team to the other.
If an instant replay challenge is called during the game, the referees signal for a media time out. The referee signals these media time-outs by first using the time out signal, then extending both arms in a horizontal position.
Teams change ends of the field at the end of the first quarter and the end of the third quarter, though otherwise the situation on the field regarding possession, downs remaining and distance-to-goal does not change at these occasions so a team with possession 5 yards from the opponent's endzone at the end of the first quarter would resume play 5 yards from the endzone at the other end of the field, which they would then be attacking.
Separating the first and second halves is halftime. Both halves, and any overtime, begin with kick-offs — the kicking team is decided by a coin toss see below.
In the NFL, an automatic timeout is called by the officials when there are two minutes left in both the second and the fourth quarters, and overtime; this is most commonly referred to as the two-minute warning.
No such warning is normally given in amateur football, though if there is no visible stadium clock, the referee will give a two-minute warning four minutes in high school.
If a game is tied at the end of four quarters, overtime is played. In overtime, the coin is tossed to determine which team will possess the ball first.
The winner of the coin toss can choose to give the ball or receive the ball. If the first possession results in a field goal, the other team is given possession to match or better the field goal; therefore continuing the game.
If the first possession results in a touchdown or safety, the scoring team wins. During the regular season in the NFL, one overtime period is played with each team receiving two time outs.
If both teams are tied after the minute overtime, the game officially ends in a tie. In the playoffs, minute overtime periods continue until a winner is determined.
Overtime follows after a three-minute intermission following the end of the regulation game. Prior to start of overtime, a coin flip is performed where the captain of the visiting team calls the toss.
The team that wins the coin flip has the option to either receive the kickoff or choose the side of the field they wish to defend. The previous occurrence was one week earlier, on September 9, Super Bowl LI was the first Super Bowl to go into overtime with a all tie between the Atlanta Falcons and New England Patriots , which the Patriots eventually won by scoring a touchdown on their first drive.
Prior to the playoffs, the overtime winner was simply the first team to score any points;  however, they were changed to reduce the apparent advantage gained by the team that won the overtime coin toss.
Under the prior rules, the team that won the coin toss would usually elect to receive the ball, then gain just enough yardage to win the game by kicking a field goal without the other team ever touching the ball.
Denver won the game on the first play in overtime, an yard touchdown pass from Tim Tebow to Demaryius Thomas. The rule was expanded into the regular season for the season,  and the first game in which both teams scored in overtime was a 43—37 victory by the Houston Texans over the Jacksonville Jaguars on November 18, The rules for overtime changed for the — season and tweaked again for the — season.
NFL Europa , a defunct league run by the NFL, used a minute overtime period, with the constraint that each team must have the opportunity of possession; once both teams have had such an opportunity, the overtime proceeds in a manner similar to the NFL's.
Thus, if Team A has the first possession of overtime and scores a touchdown and converts their kick thus being 7 points ahead of Team B , Team A would then kick off to Team B In the NFL, the game would have ended with the touchdown, without a conversion being attempted.
Team B would have to match or exceed the 7 point difference within this ensuing possession; exceeding it would end the game immediately, while matching the difference would result in a kickoff to Team A.
From this point, the overtime is sudden death. The defunct United Football League had also used this rule. The defunct World Football League , in its first season of , used an overtime system more analogous to the system long used in international soccer.
The league changed to the NFL's sudden-death format for its final season in In college and high school football, an overtime procedure the Kansas plan ensures that each team has equal opportunity to score.
In college, both teams are granted possession of the ball at their opponents' 25 yard-line in succession. A coin flip takes place, with the winning team having the option either 1 to declare that they will take the ball first or second, or 2 to decide on which end of the field the series will occur both teams' series occur on the same end of the field.
The losing team will have the first option in any subsequent even-numbered overtime. In the first overtime, the team with first series attempts to score either a touchdown or a field goal; their possession ends when either a touchdown or a field goal have been scored, they turn the ball over via a fumble or an interception, or they fail to gain a first down.
After a touchdown, a team may attempt either an extra-point or a two-point conversion. However, if the team on defense during the first series recovers a fumble and returns it for a touchdown, or returns an interception for a touchdown, the defensive team wins the game.
This is the only way for a college overtime game to end without both teams having possession. Otherwise, regardless of the outcome of the first team's series be it touchdown, field goal, or turnover , the other team begins their series.
If the score remains tied after both teams have completed a series, a second overtime begins. If the score remains tied after two overtimes, teams scoring touchdowns are required to attempt a two-point conversion from the third overtime on.
In high school football, individual state associations can choose any overtime format they want, or even elect to not play overtime at all ties stand in this case.
However, most states use the Kansas Plan. In a majority of states, each team is granted possession of the ball at the yard line, meaning that a team cannot make a first down without scoring except via a defensive penalty that carries an automatic first down such as defensive pass interference or roughing the passer.
As is the case with the college overtime rule, the team that wins the coin toss will have the choice as to whether to take the ball first or second, or decide at which end of the field the overtime will be played.
The other major difference between overtime in college football and high school football is that in high school football, if the defense forces a turnover, the ball is dead immediately, thus eliminating the possibility of scoring.
However, in Texas , the college overtime rule is used, as both the University Interscholastic League , which governs interscholastic activities for Texas public high schools, and the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools , the largest analogous body for Texas private high schools, play by NCAA football rules with a few modifications for the high school level.
Massachusetts also is another state that uses NCAA-style overtime rules. The defunct XFL used a modified Kansas Plan which, upon the first team scoring, required the opponent to score the same or greater number of points in the same or fewer downs i.
Each team started at the yard line, but like high school, there were no opportunities for first downs. The league also banned field goals except on a fourth down.
Three minutes before the start of the game, the referee meets with captains from both teams for a coin toss. The visiting team calls the toss.
The winner of the toss may defer their choice to the start of the second half, or they may take first choice of:.
At the start of the second half, the team that did not choose first either because they deferred their choice or because they lost the toss gets the first choice of options.
If a game goes to overtime, a coin toss is held before the start of overtime, but tosses are not held before the start of subsequent overtime periods.
In college, for example, the loser of the toss to start overtime has first choice in the second overtime period. The choices available to the captains in overtime vary among the NFL, college, and various states' high school rules.
In high school, the coin toss may be held between the captains or coaches earlier before the start of the game. At three minutes before kickoff, the captains meet for a simulated coin toss, where the referee announces the results of the earlier toss.
The XFL did not implement a coin toss; instead an event took place called the "opening scramble", in which one player from each team fought to recover a football 20 yards away in order to determine possession.
Both players lined up side-by-side on one of the yard lines, with the ball being placed at the yard line. At the whistle, the two players would run toward the ball and attempt to gain possession; whichever player gained possession first was allowed to choose possession as if he had won a coin toss in other leagues.
The rules vary from the college level to the professional level. In the NFL, unless you are tagged by an opposing player or give yourself up, you are not down.
A player carrying the ball the runner is downed when any of the following occurs:. The majority of a football game takes place on plays, or downs , that begin at the line of scrimmage.
The officials spot the ball place it in a designated spot on the field on the line of scrimmage and declare it ready for play.
The width of the spotted football defines the width of the neutral zone , an area of the field no player other than the snapper may position himself in or above before the snap.
Each team has its own line of scrimmage, thought of as a vertical plane from sideline to sideline that passes through the point of the ball nearest its own goal line.
A typical offense is made up of a quarterback , five offensive linemen , two wide receivers , a running back , a fullback , and a tight end , however teams will vary their personnel on the field to fit any given play.
A quarterback is essentially the leader of the offense. It is most often their responsibility to pass along the play called to the rest of the players in the huddle before any given play.
A quarterback is the primary ball handler on offense. It is their responsibility to call the snap count for the ball to enter play.
Once the ball is hiked into play, it is their job to either hand the ball off to one of their running backs, or scout the field for an open receiver to throw the ball to.
Lines are drawn on the field at 10 yard interval to indicate how far each team has to go before reaching the end zone. The end zones are added at each end of the pitch and are roughly 20 yards in length each.
Posts can also be found at each end of which the kicker kicks the ball over. When a player scores a touchdown six points are awarded to their team.
A touchdown can be scored by either carrying the ball into the end zone or receiving the ball from a pass whilst in the end zone. After a touchdown has been scored the attacking team have opportunity to kick the ball for an extra point.
The ball must pass between the upright posts for a successful kick.Mit der BSO wird auch geregelt, was in deren direkte Zuständigkeit fällt oder in den Zuständigkeitsbereich der einzelnen Landesverbände wie z. Zusätzlich kann es weitere Trainer geben, beispielsweise für bestimmte Positionen, körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit oder koordinative Fähigkeiten. Haus im glück heute gewann knapp mit Jemand wirft einen Pass, der wiederum von einem anderen Spieler gefangen wird. Blockieren gegnerische Spieler den Weg, muss natürlich improvisiert werden. Diesmal versucht Jan Stecker in der Webshow sein Glück. Dann wird der Ball im vierten Versuch in der Regel durch einen sogenannten Punt möglichst weit in Richtung gegnerischer Endzone gekickt, damit der Gegner das Angriffsrecht in einer möglichst schlechten Position übernehmen muss. Jede Mannschaft hat hier die Gelegenheit, durch einen Kick direkt von der Yard-Linie durch die beiden Torstangen zu treffen. Vor dem Snap wird üblicherweise vom Quarterback im Huddle bekanntgegeben, wie die Kadenz auszusehen hat. Ziel der Defensive Line ist es in der Regel, den Quarterback direkt anzugreifen und ihn damit am Spielaufbau zu stören. Erster der vier Ninja´s Path Online Slot | PLAY NOW | StarGames Casino, die dem angreifenden Team zur Verfügung stehen, um zehn Yards Raumgewinn zu erzielen. Durch einen dünnen Gürtel Beste Spielothek in Kirchberg finden dem Kinn bleibt der Helm an seinem Platz. Offense Das angreifende Team. Hier ist es wichtig auseinanderzuhalten, dass der Griff an das Gitter wiederum erlaubt ist. Line of Scrimmage Die Linie, von der aus jeder Spielzug beginnt. Ansammlung der Spieler, bevor sie sich an der Line of Scrimmage positionieren. Grundsätzlich ist es nur möglich zu punkten, wenn ein Laufzug oder ein Passspielzug erfolgreich ist. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Üblich ist eine Bestrafung in Yards: Pass über die gegnerische Goalline getragen oder in der Endzone gefangen wird. Berührt der Returner vor den Gegnern den Ball, gewinnt aber keine Kontrolle über ihn Muff , so wird der Ball frei und beide Mannschaften, auch Spieler der puntenden, können ihn erobern, ähnlich einem Fumble. Goalline Die Trennlinie zwischen Endzone und dem restlichen Spielfeld. Dabei gibt es noch viel mehr über die einzelnen Regeln zu berichten, die wiederum auf die Punktebasis zurückführen. Alle Fachbegriffe, die wir in diesem Regelwerk verwenden, finden Sie auch in dieser Definitionsliste. Die Highlights der Partie.