California Gold Aparate

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By , the economic climate had changed dramatically. Gold could be retrieved profitably from the goldfields only by medium to large groups of workers, either in partnerships or as employees.

By the mids, it was the owners of these gold-mining companies who made the money. Also, the population and economy of California had become large and diverse enough that money could be made in a wide variety of conventional businesses.

Once extracted, the gold itself took many paths. First, much of the gold was used locally to purchase food, supplies and lodging for the miners.

It also went towards entertainment, which consisted of anything from a traveling theater to alcohol, gambling, and prostitutes.

These transactions often took place using the recently recovered gold, carefully weighed out. The gold then left California aboard ships or mules to go to the makers of the goods from around the world.

A second path was the Argonauts themselves who, having personally acquired a sufficient amount, sent the gold home, or returned home taking with them their hard-earned "diggings".

As the Gold Rush progressed, local banks and gold dealers issued "banknotes" or "drafts"—locally accepted paper currency—in exchange for gold, [] and private mints created private gold coins.

A study attributes the record-long economic expansion of the United States in the recession-free period of — primarily to "a boom in transportation-goods investment following the discovery of gold in California.

The Gold Rush propelled California from a sleepy, little-known backwater to a center of the global imagination and the destination of hundreds of thousands of people.

The new immigrants often showed remarkable inventiveness and civic-mindedness. For example, in the midst of the Gold Rush, towns and cities were chartered, a state constitutional convention was convened, a state constitution written, elections held, and representatives sent to Washington, D.

Large-scale agriculture California's second "Gold Rush" [] began during this time. Between and , the population of San Francisco increased from to , The Panama Railway , spanning the Isthmus of Panama, was finished in One ill-fated journey, that of the S.

Central America , [] ended in disaster as the ship sank in a hurricane off the coast of the Carolinas in , with approximately three tons of California gold aboard.

The human and environmental costs of the Gold Rush were substantial. Native Americans, dependent on traditional hunting, gathering and agriculture, became the victims of starvation and disease, as gravel, silt and toxic chemicals from prospecting operations killed fish and destroyed habitats.

Later farming spread to supply the settlers' camps, taking more land away from the Native Americans. In some areas, systematic attacks against tribespeople in or near mining districts occurred.

Various conflicts were fought between natives and settlers. After his killing, the sheriff led a group of men to track down the Indians, whom the men then attacked.

Only three children survived the massacre that was against a different band of Wintu than the one that had killed Anderson. Historian Benjamin Madley recorded the numbers of killings of California Indians between and and estimated that during this period at least 9, to 16, California Indians were killed by non-Indians, mostly occurring in more than massacres defined as the "intentional killing of five or more disarmed combatants or largely unarmed noncombatants, including women, children, and prisoners, whether in the context of a battle or otherwise".

The state government, in support of miner activities funded and supported death squads , appropriating over 1 million dollars towards the funding and operation of the paramilitary organizations.

While we cannot anticipate the result with but painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power and wisdom of man to avert.

After the initial boom had ended, explicitly anti-foreign and racist attacks, laws and confiscatory taxes sought to drive out foreigners—not just Native Americans—from the mines, especially the Chinese and Latin American immigrants mostly from Sonora, Mexico and Chile.

The Gold Rush stimulated economies around the world as well. Farmers in Chile , Australia, and Hawaii found a huge new market for their food; British manufactured goods were in high demand; clothing and even prefabricated houses arrived from China.

The increase in gold supply also created a monetary supply shock. Within a few years after the end of the Gold Rush, in , the groundbreaking ceremony for the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad was held in Sacramento.

The line's completion, some six years later, financed in part with Gold Rush money, [] united California with the central and eastern United States.

Travel that had taken weeks or even months could now be accomplished in days. California's name became indelibly connected with the Gold Rush, and fast success in a new world became known as the "California Dream.

Brands noted that in the years after the Gold Rush, the California Dream spread across the nation:. The old American Dream The new dream was the dream of instant wealth, won in a twinkling by audacity and good luck.

Overnight California gained the international reputation as the "golden state". California farmers, [] oil drillers, [] movie makers, [] airplane builders , [] and "dot-com" entrepreneurs have each had their boom times in the decades after the Gold Rush.

In addition, the standard route shield of state highways in California is in the shape of a miner's spade to honor the California Gold Rush.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the film, see California Gold Rush film. Prospectors working California gold placer deposits in Crushing quartz ore prior to washing out gold.

After , California gold mining changed and is outside the 'rush' era. A Bibliography of Periodical Articles". California State University, Stanislaus.

Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved January 23, Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved December 3, History of California, Volume History of California, — Rush for riches; gold fever and the making of California.

Oakland, California, Berkeley and Los Angeles: Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. The age of gold: Another route across Nicaragua was developed in ; it was not as popular as the Panama option.

Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved February 26, History of Siskiyou County, California. Life amongst the Modocs: Heyday Books; reprint edition January So Much to Be Done.

Rooted in barbarous soil: The California Gold Rush. Retrieved May 12, Retrieved October 22, Other estimates range from 70, to 90, arrivals during ibid.

Archived from the original on May 13, African American Literature of the Gold Rush. Women in Early San Francisco". Retrieved March 7, They saw the elephant: Women in the California Gold Rush.

Here, the rough-and-tumble saloons of the Gold Rush developed into dance halls, honky-tonks, and bawdy houses that provided a space for men to gamble, dance, and satisfy their sexual desires University of Oklahoma Press.

Mapping Region in Early American Writing, There were fewer than 1, U. The Shirley Letters from the California Mines, — Heyday Books, Berkeley, California.

Retrieved July 31, The letters were originally published in — by The Pioneer magazine. Congress finally legalized the practice in the " Chaffee laws " of and the "placer law" of See also John F.

Burns, and Richard J. Orsi, eds; Taming the Elephant: Archived from the original on May 14, The term "ounces" used in this article to refer to gold typically refers to troy ounces.

There are some historical uses where, because of the age of the use, the intention is ambiguous. See Roman-era gold mines in Spain.

Roman engineers built extensive aqueducts and reservoirs above gold-bearing areas, and released the stored water in a flood so as to remove over-burden and expose gold-bearing bedrock, a process known as hushing.

The bedrock was then attacked using fire and mechanical means, and volumes of water were used again to remove debris, and to process the resulting ore.

The gold recovered using these methods was used to finance the expansion of the Roman Empire. Hushing was also used in lead and tin mining in Northern Britain and Cornwall.

There is, however, no evidence of the earlier use of hoses, nozzles and continuous jets of water in the manner developed in California during the Gold Rush.

Retrieved February 19, Evidence from the California Gold Rush". Journal of Economic History. Duke University Press Books.

Lick's fortune was used to build Lick Observatory. Huntington , Mark Hopkins and Charles Crocker , Sacramento area businessmen later known as the Big Four who financed the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad , and became very wealthy as a result.

The social world of the California Gold Rush. Other estimates are that there were 7,—13, non-Native Americans in California before January See Starr, Kevin , p.

The Journal of Economic History. By , California had over flour mills, and was exporting wheat and flour around the world.

Americans and the California dream: New York and Oxford: Central America information ; Final voyage of the S. Retrieved April 25, All hands and passengers were saved, along with the cargo of gold, but the ship was a total loss.

Archived from the original on March 12, Indian Country Today Media Network. Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved April 7, California Secretary of State.

Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved March 23, Genocide in northwestern California: California's Native American Genocide, — Joaquin Murrieta was a famous Mexican bandit during the Gold Rush of the s.

Editorial Universitaria , Chile. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved August 8, The gold rush constituted a positive monetary supply shock because the United States was on the gold standard at the time.

The nation had switched from a bimetallic gold and silver standard to a de facto gold standard in Under the latter, the U.

That commitment anchored prices, but the large gold discovery functioned like a monetary easing by a central bank, with more gold chasing the same amount of goods and services.

The increase in spending ultimately led to higher prices because nothing real had changed except the availability of a shiny yellow metal.

Americans and the California Dream, — See Burchell, Robert A. Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved October 10, Retrieved September 7, In the s, green and white CA signs that resemble miners' spades replaced the black and white U.

Archived from the original on October 19, Complete map of historic Hwy 49". Retrieved December 30, While critics have long recognized Harte's interest in gender constructs, Harte's depictions of Western partnerships also explore changing dynamics of economic relationships and gendered relationships through terms of contract, mutual support, and the bonds of labor.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe Clappe, Louise Amelia Knapp Smith []. Heyday Books , Berkeley, California. Clay, Karen; Gavin Wright April Explorations in Economic History.

Gaither, Chris; Chmielewski, Dawn C. Archived from the original PDF on June 16, Harper's New Monthly Magazine March , volume 10, issue 58, p.

The destruction of California Indians. University of Nebraska Press. Gold fever and the making of California. Johnson, Susan Lee Levy, JoAnn [].

Heyday Books ; reprint edition January So much to be done: Women settlers on the mining and ranching frontier, 2d ed. The worst of the large scale mining techniques came in - hydraulic mining.

Huge jets of water tore apart the walls of the riverbeds. By the s it was clear that hydraulic mining was destroying the landscape, but little was done to stop it.

Californians still had an attitude of exploitation, an attitude the miners had from the beginning. It took over thirty years to ban hydraulic mining--thirty years to change California's attitude of exploitation.

The rivers of northern California would never return to their pristine state. But then no part of California would be the same after the gold rush.

Calaveras Consolidated Gold Mining Co. Robinsons Ferry, Calaveras Co. Mammoth Copper Mine - W. The Shasta copper-zinc belt is in west-central Shasta County in the foothills of the Klamath Mountains and a few miles north of Redding.

The two main areas of mineralization are known as the West and East Shasta districts. Gold and silver-bearing gossans were originally mined in these districts during the s.

Later, from the s to about , copper and zinc ores were mined in large quantities and treated in several nearby smelters. The copper deposits which have been actively mined and smelted since are found in a number of districts in Shasta County, California; among the more prominent mines are the Iron Mountain, Bully Hill, Mammoth, and Balaklala.

The production of copper in was 26,, pounds. Substantial amounts of by-product gold were recovered in these operations.

The Sierra Nevada Foot Hills copper belt occuppies a somewhat extensive area west of the mother lode gold belt.

The ores at times carry considerable lead, zinc and precious metals. Argonaut Mine - Jackson, CA. Gold Dredges - Oroville, CA. Underground in a California gold mine.

Tungsten Chief Mining Co. Working a sluice - Spanish Flat, CA The Empire Mine operated for years, from , producing some 5. The Empire Mine was the richest individual gold mine in California.

The Bourn family maintained control of the mine until when it was sold to Newmont Mining. By the s, inflation costs for gold mining were leaving the operation unprofitable.

In a crippling miners strike over falling wages ceased operations. The mine was officially closed a year later on May 28, when the last water pumps were shut and removed.

The Kennedy Mine is named for Andrew Kennedy, who reportedly discovered a quartz ledge in the late s. The Kennedy Mining Company was formed in when he and three partners began digging shafts near today's mine property entrance.

The mine operated sporadically until it closed in In the company began sinking a new shaft 1, feet east of the original shafts. This East Shaft would reach a vertical depth of 5, feet, the deepest vertical depth gold mine in North America at the time The company operated the mine until when the U.

Government closed gold mines because of the war effort. The Idaho-Maryland Mine was the second-largest underground gold mine in California, producing about 2.

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California has a very diverse economy: California is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, and the Mexican state of Baja California to the south.

The state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, and from the redwood — Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast.

The Central Valley , a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate , the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains.

What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries.

The area became a part of Mexico in following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in after the Mexican—American War.

The western portion of Alta California then was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, The California Gold Rush starting in led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom.

The word California originally referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico; it was later [ when? Spanish explorer Francisco de Ulloa's initial surveys of the Baja California Peninsula exploring the western coast of North America led him to believe that it was an island rather than part of the larger continent.

It's possible the name California was meant to imply the island was a Caliphate. Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California, very close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women without a single man among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons.

They were robust of body with strong passionate hearts and great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the bold and craggy rocks.

The conventional wisdom that California was an island , with maps drawn to reflect this belief, lasted as late as the 18th century.

Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10, years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America.

Various estimates of the native population range from , to , California groups also were diverse in their political organization with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms , such as the Chumash , Pomo and Salinan.

Trade, intermarriage and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups. Some 37 years later English explorer Francis Drake also explored and claimed an undefined portion of the California coast in Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in That depiction appeared on many European maps well into the 18th century.

During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts presidios and three small towns pueblos.

Several other smaller cities and towns also sprang up surrounding the various Spanish missions and pueblos, which remain to this day.

The Spanish colonization began decimating the natives through epidemics of various diseases for which the indigenous peoples had no natural immunity, such as measles and diphtheria.

During this same period, Russian ships also explored along the California coast and in established a trading post at Fort Ross.

Russia's early 19th-century coastal settlements in California were positioned just north of the northernmost edge of the area of Spanish settlement in San Francisco Bay , and were the southernmost Russian settlements in North America.

For the next 25 years, Alta California remained as a remote, sparsely populated, northwestern administrative district of the newly independent country of Mexico.

Cattle ranches, or ranchos , emerged as the dominant institutions of Mexican California. Soon after Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and was secularized by From the s, trappers and settlers from the United States and the future Canada arrived in Northern California.

The early government of the newly independent Mexico was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both between regional areas, and also revolts against the central Mexican government.

One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh. After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States.

Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, soil and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route.

After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh helped end the rule of the last Mexican governor of California, thereby paving the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States.

Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic" at Sonoma. The Republic's only president was William B.

Ide , [51] who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California, and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders.

The California Republic was short lived; [52] the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican—American War — Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo February 2, that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the annexed Mexican territory of Alta California soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona , Nevada , Colorado and Utah.

The lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico.

In , the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,, plus about , Native Americans, down from about , before Hispanic settlement in In , only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances.

Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands.

By the time of California's application to the US Congress for statehood in , the settler population of California had multiplied to , By , over , settlers had come.

The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from until In , a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey.

Among the first tasks of the Convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital. The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose — Subsequent locations included Vallejo — , and nearby Benicia — ; these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well.

The capital has been located in Sacramento since [59] with only a short break in when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento.

Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the US Congress for admission to statehood. On September 9, , as part of the Compromise of , California was officially admitted into the United States as an undivided free state.

Its status as a 'free state' prevented the expansion of slavery to the Pacific Coast, which was a foremost concern for the pre- Civil War US Congress.

Within the state of California, Sep 9 remains as an annually celebrated legal holiday known as California Admission Day. During the American Civil War — , California was able to send gold shipments eastwards to Washington in support of the Union cause ; [60] however, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort.

Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the "California Company" , due to a majority of their members being from California.

At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time consuming and dangerous feat.

Nineteen years afterwards, in , shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, a more direct connection was developed with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in California was then easy to reach.

Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown including oranges in Southern California , and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.

Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity.

As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers.

Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians.

Between and , the California state government paid around 1. In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them.

Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo , have described the actions of the California government as a genocide.

Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route In the period from to , the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union.

In , the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in to develop a highly efficient system of public education.

Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the s.

This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California.

The San Francisco earthquake and St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U. California is the 3rd largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas.

In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley , bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south.

The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them.

With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs.

Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley.

In the western part of the state is Clear Lake , the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier , the southernmost glacier in the United States.

About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests, [84] and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state.

California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5, years old.

In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer.

The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River , from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.

As part of the Ring of Fire , California is subject to tsunamis , floods , droughts, Santa Ana winds , wildfires , landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes.

It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, in particular, the San Andreas Fault. About 37, earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt.

Although most of the state has a Mediterranean climate , due to the state's large size, the climate ranges from polar to subtropical.

The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers.

The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent.

Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States.

Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast.

The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas that are close to the ocean.

Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: Northwestern California has a temperate climate , and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast.

The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada , have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer. California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts.

The higher elevation deserts of eastern California have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters.

The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not.

This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka , the extreme heat of Death Valley , and the mountain climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevadas.

California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is part of the Nearctic ecozone and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions.

California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood Lyonothamnus floribundus.

Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation , whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac Ceanothus.

Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing , and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.

California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: California's native grasses are perennial plants. Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran desert ; upper Sonoran foothill regions and some coastal lands , transition coastal areas and moist northeastern counties ; and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.

Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde.

The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters. Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley.

The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants.

Nemophila , mint , Phacelia , Viola , and the California poppy Eschscholzia californica — the state flower — also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.

The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood Sequoia sempervirens and the "big tree" or giant sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum , among the oldest living things on earth some are said to have lived at least 4, years.

Tanbark oak , California laurel , sugar pine , madrona , broad-leaved maple , and Douglas-fir also grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern , alumnroot, barrenwort , and trillium , and there are thickets of huckleberry , azalea , elder, and wild currant.

Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip , and tiger and leopard lilies. The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine , red fir , and lodgepole pine to thrive.

Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus ; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow.

Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus , acacia , pepper tree , geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower , Antioch Dunes evening primrose , Solano grass , San Clemente Island larkspur , salt marsh bird's beak , McDonald's rock-cress , and Santa Barbara Island liveforever.

In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit , kangaroo rat , squirrel, and opossum. Common birds include the owl , roadrunner , cactus wren , and various species of hawk.

The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper , desert tortoise , and horned toad. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope , brown-footed woodrat , and ring-tailed cat.

Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher , bushtit , and California condor. In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer , black bears , gray foxes , cougars , bobcats , and Roosevelt elk.

Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too.

Birds such as the kingfisher , chickadee, towhee , and hummingbird thrive here as well. The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel , snowshoe hare , and several species of chipmunks.

Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay , Sierra chickadee. Sierra hermit thrush , water ouzel , and Townsend's solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer.

While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker.

Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit , and the bighorn sheep.

The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer , coyote , mountain lion , northern flicker , and several species of hawk and sparrow.

Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow , golden , and cutthroat.

Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass , yellowfin tuna , barracuda , and several types of whale.

Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species.

Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox , Point Arena mountain beaver , Pacific pocket mouse , salt marsh harvest mouse , Morro Bay kangaroo rat and five other species of kangaroo rat , Amargosa vole , California least tern , California condor , loggerhead shrike , San Clemente sage sparrow , San Francisco garter snake , five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish.

Eleven butterflies are also endangered [] and two that are threatened are on the federal list. California has a total of , acres 1, The vast majority of rivers in California are dammed as part of two massive water projects: The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.

The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the Eel River is the largest river in the state to remain in its natural un-dammed state.

Some other important rivers are the Klamath River and the Trinity River in the far north coast, and the Colorado River on the southeast border with Arizona.

The population is projected to reach 40 million by and 50 million by Between and , there was a natural increase of 3,, 5,, births minus 2,, deaths. Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states.

The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow , Kern County. The state has incorporated cities and towns, of which are cities and 22 are towns.

Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of Name " or "Town of Name ".

Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: Starting in the year , for the first time since the California Gold Rush , California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.

The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers.

According to the United States Census Bureau in the population self-identifies as alone or in combination: By ethnicity, in the population was Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California.

As of [update] , In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,, residents.

The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,, residents. California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.

California's Native American population of , is the most of any state. English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language.

In , the Modern Language Association of America estimated that Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.

In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than , persons, more than any other state in the nation.

New York State, in second place, had 9 languages other than English spoken by more than , persons.

California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in 6 language families.

As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century.

This variety, known as California English , has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.

The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States , but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences.

As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia.

California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise.

In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains.

In the s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers. The California Gold Rush of the s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent.

Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population.

In , those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in was 0.

The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast , as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco.

California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders.

California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco , the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.

The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally.

California has twenty major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state. The San Francisco Bay Area has seven major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team.

California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl , among others.

California is the only U. The and Summer Olympics were held in Los Angeles. Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students.

California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K—12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures.

For , California's K public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0. A study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation.

California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems:. California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University , the University of Southern California , the California Institute of Technology , and the Claremont Colleges.

California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.

California has a twinning arrangement with the region of Catalonia in Spain [] and the Province of Alberta in Canada.

California's economy ranks among the largest in the world. The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality.

In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.

California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy.

Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.

The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage.

Prospectors working California gold placer deposits in Crushing quartz ore prior to washing out gold. After , California gold mining changed and is outside the 'rush' era.

A Bibliography of Periodical Articles". California State University, Stanislaus. Archived from the original on July 1, Retrieved January 23, Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved August 22, Retrieved December 3, History of California, Volume History of California, — Rush for riches; gold fever and the making of California.

Oakland, California, Berkeley and Los Angeles: Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

The age of gold: Another route across Nicaragua was developed in ; it was not as popular as the Panama option. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved February 26, History of Siskiyou County, California.

Life amongst the Modocs: Heyday Books; reprint edition January So Much to Be Done. Rooted in barbarous soil: The California Gold Rush.

Retrieved May 12, Retrieved October 22, Other estimates range from 70, to 90, arrivals during ibid. Archived from the original on May 13, African American Literature of the Gold Rush.

Women in Early San Francisco". Retrieved March 7, They saw the elephant: Women in the California Gold Rush. Here, the rough-and-tumble saloons of the Gold Rush developed into dance halls, honky-tonks, and bawdy houses that provided a space for men to gamble, dance, and satisfy their sexual desires University of Oklahoma Press.

Mapping Region in Early American Writing, There were fewer than 1, U. The Shirley Letters from the California Mines, — Heyday Books, Berkeley, California.

Retrieved July 31, The letters were originally published in — by The Pioneer magazine. Congress finally legalized the practice in the " Chaffee laws " of and the "placer law" of See also John F.

Burns, and Richard J. Orsi, eds; Taming the Elephant: Archived from the original on May 14, The term "ounces" used in this article to refer to gold typically refers to troy ounces.

There are some historical uses where, because of the age of the use, the intention is ambiguous. See Roman-era gold mines in Spain.

Roman engineers built extensive aqueducts and reservoirs above gold-bearing areas, and released the stored water in a flood so as to remove over-burden and expose gold-bearing bedrock, a process known as hushing.

The bedrock was then attacked using fire and mechanical means, and volumes of water were used again to remove debris, and to process the resulting ore.

The gold recovered using these methods was used to finance the expansion of the Roman Empire. Hushing was also used in lead and tin mining in Northern Britain and Cornwall.

There is, however, no evidence of the earlier use of hoses, nozzles and continuous jets of water in the manner developed in California during the Gold Rush.

Retrieved February 19, Evidence from the California Gold Rush". Journal of Economic History. Duke University Press Books. Lick's fortune was used to build Lick Observatory.

Huntington , Mark Hopkins and Charles Crocker , Sacramento area businessmen later known as the Big Four who financed the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad , and became very wealthy as a result.

The social world of the California Gold Rush. Other estimates are that there were 7,—13, non-Native Americans in California before January See Starr, Kevin , p.

The Journal of Economic History. By , California had over flour mills, and was exporting wheat and flour around the world. Americans and the California dream: New York and Oxford: Central America information ; Final voyage of the S.

Retrieved April 25, All hands and passengers were saved, along with the cargo of gold, but the ship was a total loss. Archived from the original on March 12, Indian Country Today Media Network.

Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved April 7, California Secretary of State. Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved March 23, Genocide in northwestern California: California's Native American Genocide, — Joaquin Murrieta was a famous Mexican bandit during the Gold Rush of the s.

Editorial Universitaria , Chile. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved August 8, The gold rush constituted a positive monetary supply shock because the United States was on the gold standard at the time.

The nation had switched from a bimetallic gold and silver standard to a de facto gold standard in Under the latter, the U.

That commitment anchored prices, but the large gold discovery functioned like a monetary easing by a central bank, with more gold chasing the same amount of goods and services.

The increase in spending ultimately led to higher prices because nothing real had changed except the availability of a shiny yellow metal.

Americans and the California Dream, — See Burchell, Robert A. Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved October 10, Retrieved September 7, In the s, green and white CA signs that resemble miners' spades replaced the black and white U.

Archived from the original on October 19, Complete map of historic Hwy 49". Retrieved December 30, While critics have long recognized Harte's interest in gender constructs, Harte's depictions of Western partnerships also explore changing dynamics of economic relationships and gendered relationships through terms of contract, mutual support, and the bonds of labor.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe Clappe, Louise Amelia Knapp Smith []. Heyday Books , Berkeley, California. Clay, Karen; Gavin Wright April Explorations in Economic History.

Gaither, Chris; Chmielewski, Dawn C. Archived from the original PDF on June 16, Harper's New Monthly Magazine March , volume 10, issue 58, p.

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