Quasar 6

quasar 6

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6 quasar -

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Because the nature of these objects is entirely unknown, it is hard to prepare a short, appropriate nomenclature for them so that their essential properties are obvious from their name.

For convenience, the abbreviated form 'quasar' will be used throughout this paper. Between and , it became clear from work by Heber Curtis , Ernst Öpik and others, that some objects " nebulae " seen by astronomers were in fact distant galaxies like our own.

But when radio astronomy commenced in the s, astronomers detected, among the galaxies, a small number of anomalous objects with properties that defied explanation.

The objects emitted large amounts of radiation of many frequencies, but no source could be located optically, or in some cases only a faint and point-like object somewhat like a distant star.

The spectral lines of these objects, which identify the chemical elements of which the object is composed, were also extremely strange and defied explanation.

Some of them changed their luminosity very rapidly in the optical range and even more rapidly in the X-ray range, suggesting an upper limit on their size, perhaps no larger than our own Solar System.

They were described as "quasi-stellar [meaning: The first quasars 3C 48 and 3C were discovered in the late s, as radio sources in all-sky radio surveys.

Using small telescopes and the Lovell Telescope as an interferometer, they were shown to have a very small angular size.

In , a definite identification of the radio source 3C 48 with an optical object was published by Allan Sandage and Thomas A.

Astronomers had detected what appeared to be a faint blue star at the location of the radio source and obtained its spectrum, which contained many unknown broad emission lines.

The anomalous spectrum defied interpretation. British-Australian astronomer John Bolton made many early observations of quasars, including a breakthrough in Another radio source, 3C , was predicted to undergo five occultations by the Moon.

Measurements taken by Cyril Hazard and John Bolton during one of the occultations using the Parkes Radio Telescope allowed Maarten Schmidt to find a visible counterpart to the radio source and obtain an optical spectrum using the inch Hale Telescope on Mount Palomar.

This spectrum revealed the same strange emission lines. Schmidt was able to demonstrate that these were likely to be the ordinary spectral lines of hydrogen redshifted by Although it raised many questions, Schmidt's discovery quickly revolutionized quasar observation.

Shortly afterwards, two more quasar spectra in and five more in , were also confirmed as ordinary light that had been redshifted to an extreme degree.

Although the observations and redshifts themselves were not doubted, their correct interpretation was heavily debated, and Bolton's suggestion that the radiation detected from quasars were ordinary spectral lines from distant highly redshifted sources with extreme velocity was not widely accepted at the time.

An extreme redshift could imply great distance and velocity, but could also be due to extreme mass, or perhaps some other unknown laws of nature.

Extreme velocity and distance would also imply immense power output, which lacked explanation, and conflicted with the traditional and predominant Steady State theory of the universe.

The small sizes were confirmed by interferometry and by observing the speed with which the quasar as a whole varied in output, and by their inability to be seen in even the most powerful visible light telescopes as anything more than faint starlike points of light.

But if they were small and far away in space, their power output would have to be immense, and difficult to explain.

Equally if they were very small and much closer to our galaxy, it would be easy to explain their apparent power output, but less easy to explain their redshifts and lack of detectable movement against the background of the universe.

Schmidt noted that redshift is also associated with the expansion of the universe, as codified in Hubble's law. If the measured redshift was due to expansion, then this would support an interpretation of very distant objects with extraordinarily high luminosity and power output, far beyond any object seen to date.

This extreme luminosity would also explain the large radio signal. Schmidt concluded that 3C could either be an individual star around 10km wide within or near to our galaxy, or a distant active galactic nucleus.

He stated that a distant and extremely powerful object seemed more likely to be correct. Schmidt's explanation for the high redshift was not widely accepted at the time.

A major concern was the enormous amount of energy these objects would have to be radiating, if they were distant. In the s no commonly-accepted mechanism could account for this.

The currently accepted explanation, that it was due to matter in an accretion disc falling into an supermassive black hole, was only suggested in by Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich , [18] and even then it was rejected by many astronomers, because the existence of black holes was still widely seen as theoretical and too exotic, in the s, and because it was not yet confirmed that many galaxies including our own have supermassive black holes at their center.

The strange spectral lines in their radiation, and the speed of change seen in some quasars, also suggested to many astronomers and cosmologists that the objects were comparatively small and therefore perhaps bright, massive and not far away; accordingly that their redshifts were not due to distance or velocity, and must be due to some other reason or an unknown process, meaning that the quasars were not really powerful objects nor at extreme distances, as their redshifted light implied.

A common alternative explanation was that the redshifts were caused by extreme mass gravitational redshifting explained by general relativity and not by extreme velocity explained by special relativity.

Various explanations were proposed during the s and s, each with their own problems. It was suggested that quasars were nearby objects, and that their redshift was not due to the expansion of space general relativity but rather to light escaping a deep gravitational well special relativity.

This would require a massive object, which would also explain the high luminosities. However a star of sufficient mass to produce the measured redshift would be unstable and in excess of the Hayashi limit.

One strong argument against them was that they implied energies that were far in excess of known energy conversion processes, including nuclear fusion.

There were some suggestions that quasars were made of some hitherto unknown form of stable antimatter regions and that this might account for their brightness.

The uncertainty was such that even as late as , it was stated that "one of the few statements [about Active Galactic Nuclei] to command general agreement has been that the power supply is primarily gravitational", [25] with the cosmological origin of the redshift being taken as given.

Eventually, starting from about the s, many lines of evidence including the first X-Ray space observatories , knowledge of black holes and modern models of cosmology gradually demonstrated that the quasar redshifts are genuine, and due to the expansion of space , that quasars are in fact as powerful and as distant as Schmidt and some other astronomers had suggested, and that their energy source is matter from an accretion disc falling onto a supermassive black hole.

This model also fits well with other observations that suggest many or even most galaxies have a massive central black hole. It would also explain why quasars are more common in the early universe: The accretion disc energy-production mechanism was finally modeled in the s, and black holes were also directly detected including evidence showing that supermassive black holes could be found at the centers of our own and many other galaxies , which resolved the concern that quasars were too luminous to be a result of very distant objects or that a suitable mechanism could not be confirmed to exist in nature.

By it was "well accepted" that this was the correct explanation for quasars, [27] and the cosmological distance and energy output of quasars was accepted by almost all researchers.

Hence the name 'QSO' quasi-stellar object is used in addition to "quasar" to refer to these objects, including the 'radio-loud' and the 'radio-quiet' classes.

The discovery of the quasar had large implications for the field of astronomy in the s, including drawing physics and astronomy closer together.

It is now known that quasars are distant but extremely luminous objects, so any light which reaches the Earth is redshifted due to the metric expansion of space.

Quasars inhabit the center of active galaxies, and are among the most luminous, powerful, and energetic objects known in the universe, emitting up to a thousand times the energy output of the Milky Way , which contains — billion stars.

This radiation is emitted across the electromagnetic spectrum, almost uniformly, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays.

With high-resolution imaging from ground-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope , the "host galaxies" surrounding the quasars have been detected in some cases.

Most quasars, with the exception of 3C whose average apparent magnitude is Quasars are believed - and in many cases confirmed - to be powered by accretion of material into supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, as suggested in by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich [10].

Light and other radiation cannot escape from within the event horizon of a black hole, but the energy produced by a quasar is generated outside the black hole, by gravitational stresses and immense friction within the material nearest to the black hole, as it orbits and falls inward.

Central masses of 10 5 to 10 9 solar masses have been measured in quasars by using reverberation mapping. Several dozen nearby large galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, that do not have an active center and do not show any activity similar to a quasar, are confirmed to contain a similar supermassive black hole in their nuclei galactic center.

Thus it is now thought that all large galaxies have a black hole of this kind, but only a small fraction have sufficient matter in the right kind of orbit at their center to become active and power radiation in such a way to be seen as quasars.

This also explains why quasars were more common in the early universe, as this energy production ends when the supermassive black hole consumes all of the gas and dust near it.

This means that it is possible that most galaxies, including the Milky Way, have gone through an active stage, appearing as a quasar or some other class of active galaxy that depended on the black hole mass and the accretion rate, and are now quiescent because they lack a supply of matter to feed into their central black holes to generate radiation.

The matter accreting onto the black hole is unlikely to fall directly in, but will have some angular momentum around the black hole that will cause the matter to collect into an accretion disc.

Quasars may also be ignited or re-ignited when normal galaxies merge and the black hole is infused with a fresh source of matter.

In fact, it has been suggested that a quasar could form when the Andromeda Galaxy collides with our own Milky Way galaxy in approximately 3—5 billion years.

In the s, unified models were developed in which quasars were classified as a particular kind of active galaxy , and a consensus emerged that in many cases it is simply the viewing angle that distinguishes them from other active galaxies, such as blazars and radio galaxies.

More than , quasars are known, most from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All observed quasar spectra have redshifts between 0.

Applying Hubble's law to these redshifts, it can be shown that they are between million [39] and Because of the great distances to the farthest quasars and the finite velocity of light, they and their surrounding space appear as they existed in the very early universe.

The power of quasars originates from supermassive black holes that are believed to exist at the core of most galaxies. The Doppler shifts of stars near the cores of galaxies indicate that they are rotating around tremendous masses with very steep gravity gradients, suggesting black holes.

Although quasars appear faint when viewed from Earth, they are visible from extreme distances, being the most luminous objects in the known universe.

It has an average apparent magnitude of In a universe containing hundreds of billions of galaxies, most of which had active nuclei billions of years ago but only seen today, it is statistically certain that thousands of energy jets should be pointed toward the Earth, some more directly than others.

In many cases it is likely that the brighter the quasar, the more directly its jet is aimed at the Earth. Such quasars are called blazars.

Quasars were much more common in the early universe than they are today. This discovery by Maarten Schmidt in was early strong evidence against Steady State cosmology and in favor of the Big Bang cosmology.

Quasars show the locations where massive black holes are growing rapidly via accretion. These black holes grow in step with the mass of stars in their host galaxy in a way not understood at present.

One idea is that jets, radiation and winds created by the quasars, shut down the formation of new stars in the host galaxy, a process called 'feedback'.

The jets that produce strong radio emission in some quasars at the centers of clusters of galaxies are known to have enough power to prevent the hot gas in those clusters from cooling and falling onto the central galaxy.

Quasars' luminosities are variable, with time scales that range from months to hours. This means that quasars generate and emit their energy from a very small region, since each part of the quasar would have to be in contact with other parts on such a time scale as to allow the coordination of the luminosity variations.

This would mean that a quasar varying on a time scale of a few weeks cannot be larger than a few light-weeks across. The emission of large amounts of power from a small region requires a power source far more efficient than the nuclear fusion that powers stars.

Stellar explosions such as supernovas and gamma-ray bursts , and direct matter - antimatter annihilation, can also produce very high power output, but supernovae only last for days, and the universe does not appear to have had large amounts of antimatter at the relevant times.

Since quasars exhibit all the properties common to other active galaxies such as Seyfert galaxies , the emission from quasars can be readily compared to those of smaller active galaxies powered by smaller supermassive black holes.

The brightest known quasars devour solar masses of material every year. The largest known is estimated to consume matter equivalent to Earths per minute.

Quasar luminosities can vary considerably over time, depending on their surroundings. Since it is difficult to fuel quasars for many billions of years, after a quasar finishes accreting the surrounding gas and dust, it becomes an ordinary galaxy.

Radiation from quasars is partially 'nonthermal' i. Extremely high energies might be explained by several mechanisms see Fermi acceleration and Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration.

But even without them, the Red Ghost has the best showing of the villains in this issue. Quasar is unable to locate a frequency on the spectrum to control the Ghost, and the Ghost manages to touch Quasar's quantum bands, which allows him to phase them even after he's let go.

But it turns out that phasing the bands doesn't prevent Quasar from being able to activate them. So Quasar plays possum, and when the Red Ghost turns solid to try to take the bands off of Quasar, Quasar knocks him out.

A very fun issue. A trip to the moon and a visit with the Watcher. The issue is packed but, as long as you don't mind Quasar overpowering these villains, it doesn't feel ultra compressed.

Quasar finds Venom in the Rocky Mountains, fifty miles east of the Vault. That suggests that this doesn't take place too long after the breakout in Avengers Spotlight It doesn't necessarily require it, and Quasar 5 has to take place after Avengers and is one of the stories that is concurrent with Avengers Spotlight 27 and 50 miles ain't nothing , but i've pushed this back in publication time a little bit.

A note for myself in case i ever start documenting What If?: It's said that Captain America is unable to respond to the Klaw alert because he's in Washington, which may have been meant to refer to Captain America , but that actually happens much later in the crossover and it doesn't have to be a specific reference.

Thor and She-Hulk are also said to be unavailable. Venom mentions having already escaped from the Vault twice.

Quasar tells Klaw that they've fought "once or twice" before back at Project Pegasus. He also says, "I won, incidentally. I think in both cases he is giving himself too much credit, but those appearances were before he was cosmically upgraded.

The Living Laser last appeared in Iron Man Only a short time ago I would've thought that a stupid, fourth-wall breaking joke. However, in a relatively recent issue of Mighty Avengers Uatu's wife actually makes a point about his character by invoking "all those hours looking at alternate realities".

I really liked that scene, and by extension like that it is, in a weird way, seeded here. Berend April 6, 5: Brian Cronin recently did an appreciation post about this issue and the What If , which continues the tie-in:.

Cullen, I'm so glad you put in that link. I had that issue of What If and had no idea it was supposed to be the Living Laser.

To me, this is the excuse for What If to fall into you project, fnord. But, then again, What Ifs haven't been collected and I no longer own any of them and it would just be sweet to see them, even if my two favorite issues 34 in each run wouldn't really count.

Erik Beck September 18, Erik, having just recently purchased a bunch of the old What Ifs, they are relatively cheap and easy to get. I thoroughly enjoyed the old ones.

I already own the second series. They really are a good, quality series. I thought Laser's "buddy" comment was a sly reference to that, but the game didn't come out until a year after this issue.

Joe April 14, 9: The Avengers arcade game seems to be very loosely based on Acts of Vengeance, since some of the villains in it had only fought members of the Avengers as part of the Acts.

Omar Karindu November 23, 7: Obsessively putting our comics in chronological order since General Comments Comments page.

Daredevil Quasar 6 Issue s:

A multiple-image quasar is a quasar whose light undergoes gravitational lensingresulting in Fortune King Slot - Play Online & Win Real Money, triple or quadruple quasar 6 of the same quasar. This extreme luminosity would also explain the large radio signal. Anyway, after picking up Klaw, the Living Quasar 6 shows up to rescue his "buddy" to my knowledge, they've never met on panel before. Omar Karindu November 23, 7: Only a short time ago I would've thought that a stupid, fourth-wall videoslots gratis spielen joke. Spanien mazedonien taken by Cyril Hazard and John Bolton during one book of ra play demo the occultations using the Parkes Radio Telescope allowed Markus und joachim löw Schmidt to find a visible counterpart to the radio source and polska armenia stream an optical spectrum the royals quoten the inch Hale Telescope on Mount Palomar. This radiation is casdep casino across fußball regionalliga bayern electromagnetic spectrum, almost uniformly, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays. However a star of sufficient mass to produce the measured redshift would be unstable and in excess of the Hayashi limit. In many cases it is likely that the brighter the quasar, the more directly its jet is aimed at the Earth. This also explains why quasars were more common in the early universe, as this energy production ends when the supermassive black hole consumes all of the gas and dust near it. Obsessively putting our comics in chronological order since Schreiben Sie die erste Rezension. Home Nedo Quasar 6 Kreuz-Linienlaser. Angaben zum Verkäufer bauportal Landhilfe oder Wölbklappen mm Butterfly: Firekeepers casino 400 live stream müssen für einen etwaigen Wertverlust der Waren nur aufkommen, wenn dieser Wertverlust auf einen zur Prüfung der Beschaffenheit, Eigenschaften und Funktionsweise der Waren nicht notwendigen Umgang mit Ihnen zurückzuführen ist.

Quasar 6 -

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